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The US Navy Naval Research Lab has invented a new type of solar cell that can work under the sea. The problem with water is that it absorbs the red portion of the light spectrum. That is why sea water appears blue. Unfortunately, much of the solar energy is residing in the red portion of the solar spectrum. That is why conventional solar panel will not work under the sea.
The Naval Research Lab has basically designed a solar panel that works efficiently with the blue and green portion of the solar spectrum. Instead of the crystalline silicon in a conventional solar panel, gallium indium phosphide is used instead. Gallium indium phospide is most efficient at the wavelength of between 400 to 700 naometers, which is ideal for undersea use at up to 30 feet depth.

The Naval Research Lab is looking at solar panel to power sensors and machinery under the sea. It can also be used to power autonomous underwater vessels. Hopefully, one day,the technology will be developed to harness power from underwater solar farms out at sea. After all seventy percent of the Earth surface is covered by water.